It has been known from a long time back in history that the testes held a key position in the potential of masculine characteristics. In 1849, a scientist named Berthold removed the testes from several cockerels, and noticed the change in behavior from other males in their species. The key was figuring out what was so special about the testes that facilitated this change in masculinity.
In the 1930s the first synthetic testosterone was being produced, and began being used in the sporting world in the 1940s. This was not, however, the first instance of people looking for pills or potions to increase their athletic prowess. In 1860, swimmers in Amsterdam were charged with taking a non food substance to improve their performance. In the 1952 summer Olympic Games held in Finland, the Russian team went home with many medals to show for their endeavors. This was partially due to their usage of a synthesized testosterone substance. This got physicians and pharmaceutical companies in the United States thinking, and decided that it was only fair that American athletes could have the same advantage. By 1958, anabolic steroids had been manufactured.
Anabolic steroids are a synthetic form of testosterone, taken as an injection, a pill, or a skin patch for the increase in protein cells in muscle mass, and the blocking of cortisol from cells in reduce recovery time. It also has the other effects as adding testosterone to the system of increasing male characteristics.
The first users were competitors who relied on muscle mass; throwing athletes (shotput, javelin, and discus), weight lifters, and football players. By the 1970s demand was growing in a variety of sporting circles. The physician who was first involved in the development of anabolic steroids quickly realized that there were negative side effects to the drug. Although he discovered this fairly early on, it was already far too late to prevent its widespread use. A black market was beginning to prosper by the 1980s. At this point, non athletes among the general public had discovered the enhancing abilities of anabolic steroids.
It wasn't until 1996 that the National Health Institute conducted a full study into the effectiveness of anabolic steroids, by a series of injections over a specific period of time. Decreased fat mass while an increase in muscle mass was recorded among receivers of the synthetic testosterone substance, in comparison with those who were injected with a placebo substance.
The control of anabolic steroids has also had a changeable history. In 1988, there was the first inclusion of anabolic steroid in the Anti Drug Abuse Act. This led to harsher punishment for both sale and possession of anabolic steroids. A couple of years later in 1990 the US Congress brought the Anabolic Steroid Enforcement Act into play, whereby certain formations of the drug were listed under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Prior to this, the sale and possession of anabolic steroids was only restricted by state laws. Illegal sales of anabolic steroids are still flourishing in today's society.